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Integrating wind power in EU electricity systems
Gepubliceerd door: Publicatie datum:
ECN Beleidsstudies 1-2-2005
ECN publicatienummer: Publicatie type:
ECN-C--05-019 ECN rapport
Aantal pagina's: Volledige tekst:
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In view of the ongoing process of liberalisation of the electricitymarket and the expected increase of wind power pursuant the RES-E Directive and the need to minimise the costs of the RES-E targets, this study discusses the technical and economic impacts of integrating wind power into the electricity system. Furthermore, two options for reducing costs of intermittency are researched: forecasting of wind power output and electricity storage. An increasing penetration of wind power into the electricity system causes additional costs, partly due to the fact that the energy source of wind power is uncontrollable, variable (on the short term as well as on the longer term), and unpredictable (especially on the longer term). Consequently, balancing generation and demand becomes more complicated, creating a need for additional secondary and tertiary control. Although the sources of increasing costs are becoming more clearly understood, as are means to mitigate them, the quantification of costs of operating an electricity system with high wind penetration is very hard. Two possible options to reduce costs of intermittency are discussed in this report: forecasting of wind power output and electric-ity storage. The need for and benefit of wind energy forecasting have been increasingly recognised in recent years. Forecasting of wind power directs on increasing the predictability of the resource and im-proved forecasting can help to enhance the balancing of supply and demand. DG operators can provide better information about their expected power output, energy suppliers can submit bet-ter estimates of electricity production to the TSO, and system operators can improve network management through better information about expected power flows. Electricity storage systems can, at the same time, offer different services to a number of actors. Next to benefits that result from price arbitrage, energy suppliers can better comply with their submitted demand and production estimates and will be able to reduce balancing costs, and DG operators can optimise the output of their generation facilities. DSOs and TSOs will be able to limit extreme situations due to low demand in combination with high peaks in power supply (or vice versa) and will be able to stabilise conditions in the grid (i.e. maintain power quality and provide balance in energy and/or reactive power).

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