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Marktkansen voor brandstofcellen in bedrijfsvoertuigen: deel 2: techniek
Gepubliceerd door: Publicatie datum:
ECN SF 1-2-2000
ECN publicatienummer: Publicatie type:
ECN-C--00-034 ECN rapport
Aantal pagina's: Volledige tekst:
83  Niet beschikbaar.

The components that are required in a fuel cell system are discussedin terms of costs, availability, state of development, potentials and limits. These form the basis for suggestions for the design concept of a fuel cell-driven bus. One conclusion is that at first a hybrid bus, based on a lightweight model, should be built. The choice for a hybrid bus means that the capacity of the fuel cell can be limited, which means a reduction in cost. It also means that the operation of the buses is less vulnerable to malfunctions in the fuel cell system. A Solid Polymer Fuel Cell (SPFC) should be applied. This type of fuel cell combines a high power density with relative simplicity of operation. The perspectives for a commercially attractive cost level are also positive. The Alkaline Fuel Cell is at the moment even cheaper than the SPFC, but this type of fuel cell is larger and heavier, and its chances for survival are not good. Hydrogen should be used as fuel at first. Later on it should be seriously considered whether or not to switch to another fuel, in combination with a reformer. Only if an attractive storage method for hydrogen becomes available, and the cost of hydrogen decreases substantially, is the use of hydrogen a real option for the future. In order to minimize the unknown factors and inherent risks in a first demonstration of fuel cell buses, nickel-cadmium batteries are the most suitable for buffering electrical energy. Other techniques still under development such as super condensers or fly wheels fit in better with the need for a buffer with high power density. There is sufficient knowledge in the Netherlands to build fuel cell systems for buses and other vehicles produced in small series. Industrial activity in the area of reformers and stacks is also a possibility. 73 refs.

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