Definitions used in PhyllisWhat is what?
Volatiles and fixed carbon:
Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F) and bromine (Br) content in weight % dry material (wt% dry), dry and ash free material (wt% daf) and on as received material (wt% ar).
In many cases the oxygen content is not measured but calculated as the difference between 100 and the measured components. When the oxygen content is measured the total sum usually does not equal 100 due to experimental errors in the analysis. For each component it is indicated whether it is measured or calculated.
Calorific value (kJ/kg):
The calorific value is expressed as Higher Heating Value (HHV) and Lower Heating Value (LHV). The difference is caused by the heat of evaporation of the water formed from the hydrogen in the material and the moisture:
The determination of the calorific value normally results in a value for the HHV. For comparison, HHV is also calculated from the elemental composition using the Milne formula:
HHVMilne = 0.341·C + 1.322·H - 0.12·O - 0.12·N + 0.0686·S - 0.0153·ash,
where C, H, etc. are the mass and the ash fractions in wt% of dry material and
HHV the heating value in MJ/kg.
HHVar = HHVdry ·(1-w/100)
Ash composition (wt% ash):
A large number of data on the ash composition after conversion is available. In
general these data are expressed as weight % of oxides. The selected oxides are
not representative for the actual chemical form of the components.
Biomass analysis (mg/kg dry):
The metal content is expressed in mg/kg dry (original) material. For each element is it shown whether it is measured or the value is below the detection limit.
Biochemical composition (wt%):
The biochemical composition of materials is expressed in weight % of the dry material (cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, fats, protein, pectin, starch, extractives, C5 and C6 sugars, total non-structural; carbohydrates). If sugar analysis is applied, cellulose = glucan and hemicellulose = sum C5 + sum C6 - glucan - rhamman.